MODERN MACHINES IN AGRICULTURE
1. TYPES OF AGRICULTURE
The types of agriculture can be divided according to very different sorting criteria:
According to its dependence on water:
Dry land farming: Agriculture is produced without the addition of water by the same farmer, feeding the soil from rain and / or groundwater.
Irrigation farming: occurs with water intake by the farmer by providing channels that captures natural or artificial surface or by groundwater extraction wells.
According to the scale of production and its relation to the market:
Subsistence: It consists in producing the minimum amount of food necessary to meet the needs of the farmer and his family, with little surplus to sell. The technical level is primitive.
Industrial Agriculture: large quantities are produced using costly means of production and market for surplus. Typical of industrialized countries, the developing countries and the internationalized sector of poorer countries. The technical level is technological. Agriculture can also be defined as market.
As seeking maximum performance or minimal use of other means of production, this will determine more or less ecological footprint:
Intensive agriculture: looking for a large production in a short space. Leads to increased wear of the site. Typical of industrialized countries.
Extensive agriculture: it depends on a larger surface area, i.e., causes less pressure on the place and their ecological relationships, but the business benefits they are minor.
According to the method and objectives:
Traditional Agriculture: Use of typical systems that have shaped the culture of the same, shorter or longer periods.
Industrial Agriculture: based mainly on intensive systems, is focused on producing large quantities of food in less time and space, but more eco-wear, designed to move large commercial benefits.
Organic Farming and Organic Farming: create different production systems that respect the ecological character of sites and geo-biological of the soil, trying to respect the seasons and the natural distributions of plant species.
AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY, EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS
The machines are elements that are used to direct the action of forces based energy work, for his part in the agricultural, motor mechanisms used in this work lighten the production and improve farming techniques. Among the most widely used agricultural machines working in the fields mentioned:
Tractor: is a very useful agricultural machine, with wheels or designed to move easily on the ground and pulling power enabling successful agricultural work, even in flooded fields. It has two brake pedals and is preparing to pull sledges. There are two types of tractors: the track of stability and strength, and wheels, able to travel to by road, has a higher speed than the track.
Walking Tractor: agricultural machine is a single axle and is operated by handles, have median motor power and strength led to horticultural and ornamental work, can work in strong fields, but is preferably used in construction of gardens.
Combine: or mower is a powerful engine agricultural machine, comb cutter to cut the plants mature grain and a long rake that goes before the machine and rotates about a horizontal axis.
Farm equipment is a group of devices designed to open furrows in the ground, shredding, spraying and fertilizing the soil.
Plough: agricultural equipment is designed to open furrows in the earth consists of a blade, fence, plough, bead, bed, wheel and handlebar, which serve to cut and level the land, hold parts of the plough, set shot and to serve as handle. There are various types of ploughs but the best known are:
mouldboard plough, formed by the grating blade and mouldboard
disc plough, disc concave formed by deep grooves to open
shallow ploughing to remove the topsoil
Subsoil plough to remove the soil depth.
Drag: agricultural equipment is designed to break up the parts and parcels of land that have been removed by the plough, are composed of a frame, which can be made of wood and metal teeth and the latch that attaches to tractor.
sprayer: it is a farm equipment designed to spray, is composed of a liquid tank, pressure pump, cap, mouth, tank and pressure valve, belts, hose, faucet and nozzle where the liquid to spray out, is insecticide, fungicide or herbicide. The hand sprayer is placed in the back of the sprayer and this has placed in the mouth and nose a special mask to prevent strong odours dismissed by the substance that expels the sprayer will harm.
Tillage planter: is a machine to place the seeds on the seedbed without prior tillage.
Fertilizer: agricultural equipment is designed to distribute fertilizer is composed of three main parts: the hopper or storage of fertilizer, the drop tube of fertilizer and fertilizer distributor.
Packing: agricultural equipment is designed for packaging or packing cereal straw or other baled forage grasses (also called bales or alpacas).